“At the center of St. Maximus’ theological and christological universe is the doctrine of Recapitulation. It is this doctrine which forms the basis of all that the New Testament and the Fathers have to say in connection with the Incarnation. While the term “recapitulation” itself appears only twice in the New Testament, the concept itself occurs repeatedly; one has only to recognize its principles of operation in order to know when it is being applied. These may be categorized as follows: 1) preeminence 2) repetition and recontextualization, 3) reversal, and 4) fulfillment.
“The Confessor elegantly summarizes this doctrine and its principles of operation in a compact sentence: “The One Logos is the many logoi, and the many logoi are the One Logos.” (Ambigua 7, PG 91:1081C). In other words, in His incarnation and enhominzation, Jesus Christ possesses and is all the fullness of the universals common both to deity and humanity. In terms of the four principles enumerated above, then, this works itself out in a multitude of ways. In terms of preeminence, it means that Christ is both the presupposition, the method, the paradigm, and the summit of whatever might be said either about God or about man. God is truly, uniquely, ultimately, and finally revealed in the Word Incarnate. And man, perfect humanity, is also only understood properly in its union with the Word. In scriptural terms, Jesus Christ is the Alpha and Omega of all that can be said about God and man, and thus has the preeminence “in all things” (Col. 1:18). Being thus, preeminent in all things, Christ becomes the final context, the ultimate and perfect “recontextualization” and repetition, of the logoi, understood here as both the words of the Old Testament Scriptures and the principles of nature: of creation as a whole and man in particular. That is, not only are the typological themes of Scripture repeated in His Incarnate Economy from His conception of His Second Advent, but He also repeats all of the natural stages of humanity as a whole, and the stages of life of each individual human being in particular. In doing so, he reverses the effects of the Fall. As the Second Adam, the entire drama of the Fall is replayed, this time to an opposite conclusion. Instead of a Fall into passions and corruption, mankind in Christ is raised and exalted. Deification and the spiritual life, in other words, are integral components and implications of the doctrine of Recapitulation. By thus repeating, and in some cases reversing, the typological themes of Holy Scripture and the natural laws and stages of humanity, Christ is not only preeminent in all things, but fulfills all Old Testament prophecy and expectation concerning His Coming, there being nothing more that can be said about them outside of and without reference to Christ.”
–Dr. Joseph P. Farrell (+Photios), Introduction to The Disputation with Pyrrhus Of Our Father Among The Saints Maximus the Confessor, p. iii-iv